Monday, May 25, 2020
The Shifting American Viewpoints towards Same-Sex Marriage in the Twenty-first Century prompting an opening of the debate with a stacking feeling of enthusiasm. In this task, I would like to be fit for refining the paramount purposes of argue between both for and against same-sex marriage and additionally the legitimate issues that are included in this subject. There are sure essential indicates that this is important, consider in the civil argument furthermore the equality for all Americans. Furthermore, I believe before the end of the report of this examination, I would have the capacity to acclimate the peruse or in an alternate world, to move the American s perspectives towards Same-Sex Marriage in today, the Twenty-first Century with the legitimate and social issues that identifying with this verbal confrontation with the goal they should see better what has made this such a divisive issue now-a-day. Keywords: Same-Sex, Same-Sex Marriage, AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s Viewpoints, Legal Issues, Social Issues, Civil Right, Religious Marriage Same-sex marriage is a standout amongst the most worry that American s stress over today. There is an advancing open consultation that relate to the approval and caution addresses about same-sex social unions to Americans in the twenty-first century. As of February 2013, same-sex marriage has been legitimized in nine states and the District of Columbia. Furthermore, in the meantime thirty-seven states have protected AmendmentsShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage : Same Sex Marriage1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRunning Head: SAME-SEX MARRIAGE NATIONALLY Same-Sex Marriage Nationally Makenzie L. Griffin Albia Community School District Authors Note This paper was prepared for government, period 2, taught by Mrs. Peterson. Abstract Same-sex marriage nationally has become more and more common now than it used to be in the nineteen-eightyÃ¢â¬â¢s. There are many organization groups that help spread the word about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues and why it is wrong to discriminate againstRead MoreGay Marriage And Same Sex Marriage Essay1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSame Sex Marriage Introduction What is marriage? According to Dictionary.com marriage is Ã¢â¬Å"any of the diverse forms of interpersonal union established in various parts of the world to form a familial bond that is recognized legally, religiously, or socially, granting the participating partners mutual conjugal rights and responsibilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary.com). Everyone knows that gays havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been treated like others not saying Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ people because, no one is normal. Going back into history gays werenÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreGay And Same Sex Marriage963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe topic of gay (or same-sex) marriage has been a controversial topic throughout the nation for many years. Like most issues, different people have opposite views on the idea of the subject. Some states governments support the idea while others are totally against it. Also, within each individual state there are people that have their own opinion of the issue. Both supporters and opponents within the states have tried to pass different amendments to established laws, in which reflect their viewsRead MoreGay Marriage And The Right Of Same Sex Marriage1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontroversy regarding the right of same-sex marriage. I decided to explore the views of two different authors who contrast each other. British Author, Andrew Sullivan writes the essay, Ã¢â¬Å"For Gay MarriageÃ¢â¬ about equal rights on marriages for same-sex couples. William J. Bennett composes the essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Against Gay MarriageÃ¢â¬ giving his views on why couples of the same sex should not be allowed to engage in marital relations. Sullivan supports the idea of gay marriages while Bennett opposes the idea. ReferringRead MoreAre Same-Sex Marriages Cool or Ã¢â¬ËGay?Ã¢â¬â¢ An Argument for Same-Sex Marriage1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdaily basis. Same-sex marriage should be nationally legalized in the United States with a law or an amendment because it is a step closer to equality for everyone. There are many obstac les in the way of the national legalization of same-sex marriage. The most prevalent of these are the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s current laws on the subject. Some of the laws that the government has Ã¢â¬Ëprotecting marriageÃ¢â¬â¢ are nothing short of barbaric. Another obstacle to the national legalization of same-sex marriage is the currentRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legalized Same Sex Marriage931 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesright to marriage for same-sex couples in the stateÃ¢â¬ (Jost, Gay Marriage Showdowns). However, there were people who opposed same-sex couples being allowed to marry and Proposition 8 was soon after introduced. Proposition 8 would be presented on ballots later that year and would amend the state constitution legalizing same-sex marriage and allow only for a man and a woman to be married (Jost, Gay Marriage Showdowns). However, California was not the first state to allow same-sex marriage. In 2003Read MoreA Brief Note On Gay Marriage And Same Sex Marriage2156 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Same Sex Marriage Emmberle Finley University of Alabama at Birmingham Ã¢â¬Æ' Overview on Gay Marriage Homosexual is defined as a sexual attraction between two people of the same sex. People hear the word homosexual when a topic about two people of the same gender being sexually attracted to one another. People usually relate to gay women as lesbians or bisexual. Bisexual means to like the same sex gender just as much as the opposite. If a person is bisexual then they date both men and women. A womanRead MoreSame Sex Marriage And Gay Rights2277 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesrecently the courts have made sweeping changes over the past two decades in laws defining whether marriage is limited to relationships between a man and a woman or is extended to same sex couples. Gay marriage and gay rights are a major controversy in the world today. It is a constant debate on whether or not traditional marriage is out-of-date and that a new way is better. Although many believe in gay rights, it is difficult to support something that is against the foundation of America, and somethingRead More Gay, Le sbian and Bisexual Issues - Same-sex Marriage is Inevitable1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSame-sex Marriage is Inevitable Ã Ã Ã Ã For many parents, the marriage of their child is a very happy and proud time. Most parents expect their children to get married and have children. But what if their child is gay or lesbian? Their child may have met the perfect person to spend their life with, but their child cannot get legally married. Same-sex couples can hold wedding ceremonies, but the law does not recognize these unions. Many heterosexuals take for granted the benefits that are extendedRead MoreShould Gay Marriage Be Legal Defense And Education Fund Supports Same Sex Marriage?1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontroversial issues, one of which is legalizing same-sex marriage. In their article, Ã¢â¬Å"Talking About the Freedom to Marry: Why Same-Sex Couples Should Have Equality in Marriage,Ã¢â¬ the Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund supports same-sex marriage. An opposing view, is given by Robert P. George, a Princeton University professor. In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"The 28th Amendment: It Is Time to Pro tect Marriage, and Democracy, in America,Ã¢â¬ he explains why he is against same-sex marriage. The Lambda Legal Defense and Education
Friday, May 15, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There exists a fine line between the degree of responsibility a government has for its citizens, and the control it assumes to ensure the proliferation of its power. While freedom may be a traditional American value, how it is defined is a question that has long been a source of debate. Furthermore, when an institution follows a course of action that becomes detrimental to society, what responsibility, if any, do the citizens have to show their dissent, and what form should that dissent take? All of these are questions looking to be answered, with varying degrees of seriousness, by Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Swift. Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s A Declaration of Independence may be thought of as a universal symbol of traditional American values,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the introduction Swift invokes the daily sight of poverty on the streets of Ireland, and how families, Ã¢â¬Å"are forced to employ all of their time in strolling, to beg sustenance for their helpless infants, who are, as they grow up, either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native country.Ã¢â¬ While Swift opens with a strong sense of compassion, creating a sense of empathy in the reader, his comments about woman as Ã¢â¬Å"breedersÃ¢â¬ and Irish who Ã¢â¬Å"fight for the pretender in Spain,Ã¢â¬ give some insight into his mixed loyalties. The wretched description of poverty certainly creates a need for change, but when Swift begins to attack the same poor people he claim need assistance, the quality of his delivery is compromised and the reader loses some degree of emotional investment in the story. Another important component of each work individually is the course of action the author claims will be effective against their perceived source of tyranny. The Declaration of Independence, having clearly labelled each offense committed by the king, culminates in a final paragraph of action; the colonies claim to be Ã¢â¬Å"absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain, is and out to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full power to levy war, conclude
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Business Communication for Conflict Management. Answer: Introduction This study has highlighted business communication of Coits Outback Adventures. The company conducts a number of different activities, including tours of the outback. The company's main clients are international tourists, particularly Chinese. Coit's Outback Adventures operates from Melbourne, Australia. This report analyses the concept of effective team communication and conflict management in this context. As per the case study, it can be mentioned that this study has highlighted the importance of the interpersonal skills. In this connection, the importance of the development of effective listening and non verbal communication has developed. Effective team communication According to Ali (2014), teammates must develop trust, since it is not automatic. Accordingly, members must communicate more openly than they normally would in everyday life. There must be honesty on all ends of the team, since withholding the truth could damage the team's integrity. Team members should always share information and feelings between each other. This allows for total trust between the team members. In order to make a business successful, it is necessary to make a good collaboration among the employees and the executives. Therefore, the staffs of the organisation can efficiently give answers to the clients. As it can be seen that their major clients are Chinese, therefore, the staffs require to communicate fluently with the clients (Aslani et al., 2013). Research has found that three or more people working together on a project are much more effective than a single person spending all of his time doing the same thing. However, without communication, the three-plus team members can be as useless as if the project went untouched. On the contrary, Baillien et al., (2014) argued that due to the lack of communication, the performance of the organisation would be decreased. Teams that fail to communicate effectively wind up wasting time and energy doing busy work and other work that is not required because of a lack of understanding of what needs to be done. These team members also misunderstand each other and their personalities. This often leads to conflict within the group and a lack of trust between group members. Team members in groups that fail to communicate effectively wind up not understanding what makes them more efficient, because they fail to get feedback from everyone else in the group, and there is no one else that they can c ompare their work to (Gross et al., 2016). There is nothing more important to a company and a project's success than effective and clear communication among team members. Good communication provides benefits to the company and to the team members that practice it. When you have effective team communication, as Aristotle said, "The whole is more than the sum of its parts." Skillful team communication creates awareness and understanding that promotes proficiency as team members complete their tasks. The elements of good team communication help a company to achieve and sustain profit (Leon-Perez, Notelaers Leon-Rubio, 2016). In order to develop an effective team management to make the business successful, it can be mentioned that there are five approaches, which are discussed in the following: Be Clear. When members of a team areunclear on the goals of the teamand their individual responsibilities, team motivation and morale can suffer. The expectation must be set that if any team member is not clear; they have an obligation to ask. One simple trick to help team leaders overcome this barrier is to check for understanding at the end of each meeting (Masuda Kostopoulos, 2016). Be Present. When team members communicate with one another, each team member must make a commitment toreally listen, seek to understand one another, use appropriate body language and ask clarifying questions. Be Courteous. Probably one of the most overlooked Bs to effective team communication is the lack of good old fashion politeness. Not being courteous in communication can result in hard feelings towards team members and the potential for individuals on the team to put up walls. Cutting people off when they are talking, not saying thank you excuse me and please, personally attacking team members and being condescending are all examples of poor team manners that can result in poor work communication on teams (McCauley, 2015). Be Flexible. There are going to be times when not everyone on the team is going to agree with an opinion or on a decision that has been made. Team members need to be flexible enough to support decisions contrary to their own desires, given that their opinions have been shared and adequately heard. Supporting the decision doesnt mean that everyone has to agree, but they must be willing to help make whatever has been decided a success (Mohammadnezamy, Mahdieh Fatemi, 2014). Be Team members must be careful to never talk bad about each other. If you cant say something nice, dont say anything at all. Or, if you arent willing to address a problem with the person there, then dont.Refrain from gossip, it erodes the trust of those you are gossiping to and takes big chunks out of team morale. Conflict management As per the statement of Prenzel Vanclay (2014), a conflict arises when individuals have varied interests, opinions and thought processes and is just not willing to compromise with each other. It is always wise to adjust to some extent and try to find a solution to the problem rather than cribbing and fighting. Conflicts and disagreements only lead to negativity and things never reach a conclusion. It only adds on to the tensions and makes life hell. It actually leaves you drained and spoils your reputation. Every individual should try his level best to avoid conflict at the first place rather than resolving it later. Precautions must be taken at the right time to avoid a conflict. In the words of Roberson et al., (2015), it can be mentioned that conflict management goes a long way in strengthening the bond among the employees and half of the problems automatically disappear. Individuals must feel motivated at work and find every single day exciting and challenging. Before implementing any idea, it must be discussed with everyone and no one should ever feel ignored or left out. This way, every employee feels indispensable for the office and he strives hard to live up to the expectations of his fellow workers and in a way contributing to the organization in his best possible way. Conflict management avoids conflicts to a great extent and thus also reduces the stress and tensions of the employees. No one likes to carry his tensions back home and if the manager of the tourism organisation fight with the colleagues and other people, then the managers are bound to feel uncomfortable and restless even at home (Schlaerth, Ensari Christian, 2013). Therefore, conflict management also plays an important role in our personal lives. Tussles and fights spoil relationships and only increase our list of enemies. Everyone needs friends who will stand by us when we need them. Conflict must be avoided at homes as it spoils the ambience and spreads negativity. Individuals tend to disrespect others as a result of conflicts. Conflict management prevents fall out between family members, friends, relatives and makes life peaceful and stress free. Blame game never helps anyone, instead it makes life miserable. No idea can ever be implemented if the individuals fight among themselves (Wolff Yakinthou, 2013). Conflict management helps to find a middle way, an alternative to any problem and successful implementation of the idea. Problems must be addressed at the right time to prevent conflict and its adverse effects at a later stage. Through conflict management skills, an individual explores all the possible reasons to worry which might later lead to a big problem and tries to resolve it as soon as possible. Conflict Management is very important because it is always wise to prevent a fight at the first place rather than facing its negative consequences. Stress disappears, people feel motivated, happy and the world definitely becomes a much better place to stay as a result of conflict management. Conclusion This report shows the business communication of Coits Outback Adventure. This organisation usually conducted tours of the outback. The clients of the organisation are mainly Chinese. In this connection, this study has aimed to the importance of the development of interpersonal skills. The organisation also requires to communicate with the Chinese clients, therefore, the organisation requires to follow non verbal communication. This can make a successful relationship between the management and the employees. On the other hand, conflict management is required to follow by the organisation. This is the process of limiting the negative aspects ofconflictwhile increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhancelearningand group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting. Recommendation In order to improve the performance of an organisation, it can be recommended that the organisation requires to aim to the importance of effective team communication and the conflict management. There are five types of conflict managements, which can be followed by the organisation. The five styles are such as Competing, Compromising, Collaborating, Avoiding, and Accommodating. Conflict management minimizes the negative outcomes of conflict and promotes the positive outcomes of conflict with the goal of improving learning in an organization. References Ali, S. (2014). Post-disaster conflict management: crowd sourced governance at the local level. Innnual Conference of the International Association for Conflict Management, IACM 2014. Aslani, S., Ramirez-Marin, J., Semnani-Azad, Z., Brett, J. M., Tinsley, C. (2013). 10. Dignity, Face, and Honor cultures: implications for negotiation and conflict management.Handbook of research on negotiation,249. Baillien, E., Bollen, K., Euwema, M., De Witte, H. (2014). Conflicts and conflict management styles as precursors of workplace bullying: A two-wave longitudinal study.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology,23(4), 511-524. Gross, M., Wallace, M., Adair, W., Neuman, E., Aarts, N., Ayoko, O., ... Amsler, L. B. (2016). Negotiation and Conflict Management Research. Leon-Perez, J. M., Notelaers, G., Leon-Rubio, J. M. (2016). Assessing the effectiveness of conflict management training in a health sector organization: evidence from subjective and objective indicators.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology,25(1), 1-12. Masuda, A. D., Kostopoulos, K. C. (2016). Performance in Teams: The Role of Conflict-Management Styles, Team and Leadership Identity.Rethinking Innovation: Global Perspectives, 238. McCauley, C. (2015). What are students' perspectives on the quality of the Conflict Management Program?. Mohammadnezamy, E., Mahdieh, O., Fatemi, A. (2014). The relationship between conflict management and the acquisition and sharing of knowledge.Arth prabandh: A Journal of Economics and Management,3(3), 9-29. Prenzel, P. V., Vanclay, F. (2014). How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management.Environmental Impact Assessment Review,45, 30-37. Roberson, P. N., Fish, J. N., Olmstead, S. B., Fincham, F. D. (2015). College Adjustment, Relationship Satisfaction, and Conflict Management A Cross-Lag Assessment of Developmental Spillover.Emerging adulthood, 2167696815570710. Schlaerth, A., Ensari, N., Christian, J. (2013). A meta-analytical review of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leaders constructive conflict management.Group Processes Intergroup Relations,16(1), 126-136. Wolff, S., Yakinthou, C. (Eds.). (2013).Conflict management in divided societies: theories and practice. Routledge.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Analytical Essay Sample on Organizational Behavior Main Barriers and Steps to Overcome Them Essay on Barriers to effective communication in a group: Effective communication is very significant for the determination of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s trend. It is important to note that effective communication fosters the attainment of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s preset goals. Conversely, miscommunication leads to delivery of invalid information hence decline in the productivity of the group. In severe cases, lack of effective communication promotes misunderstanding between the involved parties thus may end up in conflicts. In order for communication to hold and be effective, the mode of information transmission ought to be reliable, and this will deem complete upon the reception of the feedback. However, it is difficult to attain effective communication owing to various barriers that deem detrimental. The management of every organization should enact policies governing communication within the hierarchy of the group to avert the encroaching barriers. Lack of trust Trust is one of the fundamental elements of any successful team. As highlighted, the level of trust progresses positively or negatively in each interaction amongst members of a given group (Robbins and Tim 316). When trust cease to exist between various parties within the group, then the information may not reach the intended destination in its original form. Lack of trust hinders the communication process in the sense that some group members may distort some information aimed at enhancing communication. This implies lack of trust is an impetus to information distortion and manipulation that lead to miscommunication hence making the organization less effective. Trust instills confidence amongst the group members hence the increased openness amongst the group members. This boosts the efficiency of the communication. Information Filtering A sender may intentionally manipulate information so that it appears favorable. For instance, when a manager tells his/her boss exactly what he feels, the boss may opt to hear only what he wants. This attitude tends to flow with the level at which an employee is in the hierarchy of the organization. However, filtering sometimes occurs in are status differences. Reasons of fear of conveying displeasing news and the effort of pleasing the boss forces employees often to convey only the message that they think their superiors want to hear. This distorts upward communications (Robbins and Tim 316). Selective perception and perceptual barriers An employee on the receiving end might capitalize on selective perception whereby he/she contributes to communication based on their respective current needs, motivations, experience, background, and some other personal characteristics. Likewise, receivers project their own interests and personal expectations into communications when decoding information. In some cases, the inferiority complex amongst the junior members of the organization may deter them from delivering the actual information to their senior counterparts in management owing to their fear of being fired. Information overload Our mind has a limited data processing capacity. In situations when we are bombarded with much information exceeding the processing capacity, this causes information. This becomes a barrier of communicating since people can only manage a limited amount of information. It is apparent that, the levels of understanding amongst the group members vary significantly. Some modes of communication therefore may deem ineffective owing to some members of the organization owing to their differences in various perspectives that may include education level, physical disparities, and other factors. Emotional factors Emotional status of an employee can cause one to interpret a given message in a different perspective. Some of the emotional disruptions are anger and depression. One can have a different interpretation to similar information when angry and when happy. Emotions in the work place may lead to withdrawal of an employee and distrust. In cases of anger, an employee can cause harm to others and become less productive. Language barrier It important to note that, various organizations draw its membership from persons of different cultural backgrounds such as race, ethnicity, and religion. Some of the organization members may find difficult to fathom the official language embraced by the organization. This is mainly due to the language barrier. The use of some anecdotes may mean differently to a faction of the group members. This is highly witnessed when employees get used to abbreviations. Language barrier is common especially due to the different age groups in the work place. This results to inefficient flow of information, and at times, it may result in misunderstanding among the employees. Silence Any rational employer should not ignore silence since it means absence of information on the ongoing operations in an organization. Therefore, it is important for the management of the organization to encourage feedback from its members regarding client satisfaction, job satisfaction, and other feedbacks with respect to their notices and press releases. Silence means no communication at all. Employees, who decide to go silent about what they are going through, may also suffer psychological stress. The senior management should encourage downward communication, job satisfaction and to solve the problem of intimidation. It is apparent that silence is less where the management holds the opinions of the minority with high esteem (Robbins and Tim 316). Poor communication channels Members of a given group can send and receive information in several ways; different types of messages need different types of communicating channels, with factors of time and distance. Some communication media are more effective compared to others; given the situation. Some channels of communication may deem slow hence untimely delivery of the information. Normally, the face-to-face (FTF) medium of communication is the most reliable means to ensure the correct perception of the information. California Pizza Kitchen scenario The effectiveness of communication has been significantly interfered with, at the California Pizza Kitchen, which is an established fast food company. It is apparent that the company is a global leader in fast foods. The locations of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s branches mainly dwell in the flight destinations and stopovers globally. Therefore, most of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers are diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, and religious backgrounds among other factors. Recently, the company has reported a significant decline in its profits owing to decreased customers. The main cause of this is that the company has not been able to meet the demands of their customers because its employees are drawn from the USA and thus do not understand the expression of its customers whose native languages are not English with regard to tastes and preferences. It is also evident that there is a gap between the management of California Pizza Kitchen and its junior employees. This is attributed to poor commu nication channels between the top management of the company and its junior employees. Mostly, the managers use the notice board to communicate with the companys employees. This is ineffective in the sense that its employees hardly find time to check on the notice boards. This has led to the failure of the employees to respond to the demands made by the management through the issuance of the notices. Therefore, the development of cold relationship between the management and the junior employees is simmering hence denting the performance and reputation of the company (Robbins, Judge, Millett, and Waters-Marsh 253) Overcoming the barriers Lack of trust In order to address miscommunication that accrues because of this barrier, the management of the organization should capacity build its members by carrying out education workshops on a regular basis. This fosters the team building and inculcation of trust among the group members. By engaging the members in get-together parties and motivational trips, the members will be able to share ideas hence gain trust amongst themselves. During these meetings, the junior members will be able to interact with their managers hence get rid of the allayed fear whilst gaining trust. Communication in this case will be smooth and effective due to high level of trust amongst the group members. Silence and poor communication channels Silence means there is a lack of feedback to sender regarding disseminated information. The management of the organization should encourage its members to acknowledge the reception of the information disseminated and to provide feedbacks promptly. In order to avert silence, the management should involve all members in coming up with the most appropriate channels of communication that deems fit for members to receive the information and provide the feedback in a timely manner. By involving all members, the management will identify and do away with the poor communication channels. Language barrier The management of the organization should enact policies regarding the employee behaviors and the formal language embraced by the company. The full understanding of the formal language recommended by the company should be part of the hiring requirements. This will alleviate miscommunication resulting from the language barrier. Emotional factors and information filtering Depending on the nature of the information to be disseminated, the management of the organization should monitor the moods of the intended recipients before passing the information. In some cases, guidance and counseling of the intended recipients is necessary to prepare them for the negative impacts the information may have on them. Information filtering is therefore, not necessary.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Tasmanian Devil Facts The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)Ã is the worlds largest carnivorous marsupial. The animals common name comes from its ferocious feeding behavior. Its scientific name means Harris flesh-lover in honor of naturalist George Harris, who first described the devil in 1807. Fast Facts: Tasmanian Devil Scientific Name: Sarcophilus harrisiiCommon Name: Tasmanian devilBasic Animal Group: MammalSize: 22-26 inch body; 10 inch tailWeight: 13-18 poundsLife Span: 5 yearsDiet: CarnivoreHabitat: Tasmania, AustraliaPopulation: 10,000Conservation Status: Endangered Description The Tasmanian devil resembles a dog-sized rat. It has a large head for its body, which allows it to exert the strongest bite for its size of any carnivorous mammal (strong enough to bite through steel wire). It stores fat in its non-prehensile tail, so a thick tail is a good indicator of the marsupials health. Most devils have black fur with white patches, although 16% are completely black. Devils have excellent senses of hearing and smell, plus they use long whiskers to navigate in the dark. The animals eyes can see moving objects, but probably dont focus clearly. CÃ ©cile Boucher / Getty Images Mature males are larger than females. A males head and body averages 25.7 inches long, with a 10-inch tail and a weight around 18 pounds. Females average 22 inches in length, plus a 9-inch tail, and a weight of 13 pounds. Devils can hold food and other objects using four long forward-facing toes and one side-facing toe on each forefoot. There are four toes with non-retractable claws on each hindfoot. Both male and female Tasmanian devils have a scent gland at the base of the tail used to mark the ground. Habitat and Distribution About 3,000 years ago, the Tasmanian devil disappeared from mainland Australia. Many researchers believe dingoes and human expansion may have eradicated the animal. Today, devils only live on the island of Tasmania, Australia. While the animals occupy all habitats, they prefer dry forests. Diet and Behavior The Tasmanian devil rests in a den or the bush during the day and hunts at night. While devils do not form packs, they are not entirely solitary and will share a range. Tasmanian devils can hunt any animal up to the size of a kangaroo, but they usually eat carrion or take smaller prey, such as wombats or frogs. They also eat vegetation and fruit. Reproduction and Offspring Devils reach sexual maturity and start to breed at two years of age. Mating typically occurs in March. While Tasmanian devils are not territorial in general, females claim and defend dens. Males fight for the right to mate a female and the winner ferociously guards his mate to drive away competition. After a 21-day gestation, a female gives birth to 20-30 young, which are called joeys, pups, or imps. At birth, each joey only weighs from 0.0063 to 0.0085 ounces (size of a grain of rice). The blind, hairless young use their claws to move from the females vagina to her pouch. However, she only has four nipples. Once a joey makes contact with a nipple, it expands and holds the joey inside the pouch. The joey remains attached for 100 days. It leaves the pouch 105 days after birth, looking like a tiny (7.1 ounce) copy of its parents. The young remain within their mothers den for another three months. Tasmanian devils can live up to 7 years under ideal conditions, but their average life expectancy is closer to 5 years. Young Tasmanian devils are small versions of their parents. aaron007 / Getty Images Conservation Status In 2008, the IUCN classified the Tasmanian devils conservation status as endangered. The Tasmanian government has instituted protection programs for the animal, but its population continues to decline. The total population is estimated to be around 10,000 devils. Threats The principal threat to Tasmanian devil survival is devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), which is a contagious cancer devils transmit via bites. DFTD results in tumors that ultimately interfere with an animals ability to eat, leading to death by starvation. Devils also die from cancer that may be related to high levels of flame retardant chemicals in the environment. Road mortality is another significant cause of devil death. Tasmanian devils scavenge roadkill at night and are difficult for motorists to see because of their dark coloring. Tasmanian Devils and Humans At one time, Tasmanian devils were hunted for food. While it is true devils will dig up and eat human and animal corpses, there is no evidence they attack people. While Tasmanian devils can be tamed, their strong odor makes them unsuitable as pets. Tasmanian devils look and sound fierce, but they pose no direct threat to humans. CraigRJD / Getty Images Sources Brown, Oliver. Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) extinction on the Australian mainland in the mid-Holocene: multicausality and ENSO intensification. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology. 31: 49Ã¢â¬â57, 2006. doi:10.1080/03115510609506855Groves, C.P. Order Dasyuromorphia. In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 28, 2005. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0.Hawkins, C.E.; McCallum, H.; Mooney, N.; Jones, M.; Holdsworth, M. Sarcophilus harrisii. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T40540A10331066. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T40540A10331066.enOwen, D. and David Pemberton. Tasmanian Devil: A unique and threatened animal. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen Unwin, 2005. ISBN 978-1-74114-368-3.Siddle, Hannah V.; Kreiss, Alexandre; Eldridge, Mark D. B.; Noonan, Erin; Clarke, Candice J.; Pyecroft, Stephen; Woods, Gregory M.; Belov, Katherine. Transmission of a fat al clonal tumor by biting occurs due to depleted MHC diversity in a threatened carnivorous marsupial. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (41): 16221Ã¢â¬â16226, 2007. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704580104
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Subject is American Government - Essay Example American Dream dwells on the philosophy of working hard in order to succeed (Jenkins, 1997) and this is the reason that the American government has encouraged their citizens to work hard in order to achieve success. Following the aftermath of the September 2011 terrorist attack, the then President of the United States of America, George Bush Jnr encouraged Americans to work hard in order to rebuild the country (Woodward, 2002). During that great speech, he told Americans that, all hands must be on deck in order to revitalize the economy of America (Woodward, 2002). The implication of this is that, the American government believes that, the economic growth of America depends on the individual efforts of every American and this is a fundamental principle of the American Dream. Thus, it has been established that, the American Dream is an important political culture in the country as a vast population of Americans believe that hard work and perseverance leads to economic success. Depending on how one looks at it, the truth of the matter that, the American Dream remains an important part of the political